Many Aboriginal cultures use non-verbal communication to integrate children into their cultural practices at a young age. Children in these communities learn through observation and pitching, through which non-verbal communication is a key aspect of observation. The personal presentation consists of two elements: our physical characteristics and the artifacts we adorn and surround ourselves with. Physical properties are body shape, height, weight, attractiveness and other physical properties of our body. We do not have as much control over how these non-verbal indications are coded as we do with many other aspects of non-verbal communication. As Chapter 2 “Communication and Perception” put it, these characteristics play an important role in the initial formation of impressions, although we know that “we should not judge a book on its cover.” Although the ideals of attractiveness vary between cultures and individuals, research consistently shows that people considered attractive because of their physical properties have obvious benefits in many aspects of life. This fact, along with media images that often project unrealistic ideals of beauty, has contributed to the development of the health and beauty industries, diet, gyms and plastic surgery. Certainly, there have been some controversial reality shows trying to transform people`s physical characteristics, such as Extreme Makeover, The Swan and The Biggest Loser, the relative ease with which we can change artifacts that send non-verbal references to us has given rise to many other style shows and rejuvenation of space. Although not traditionally considered a “conversation,” non-verbal communication contains very specific and symbolic meanings, much like verbal speech. However, the meanings of non-verbal communication are conveyed through the use of gestures, changes in posture and timing.  The nuances on different aspects of non-verbal communication are found in cultures around the world.
These differences can often lead to misunderstandings between people from different cultures who generally do not want to offend. Differences may be based on preferences for the type of communication, such as Chinese who prefer silence to verbal communication. :69 Differences may even be based on how cultures perceive the course of time. Chronemics, the way people treat time can be categorized in two ways: polychronic, when people do a lot of activities at once and are commonplace in Italy and Spain, or monochronic when people do something at a common time in America. :422 Because non-verbal communication can vary in many areas – gestures, looks, clothing, posture, direction, or even environmental guidelines like lighting – there is plenty of room for cultural differences. :8 In Japan, a country proud of the best customer service, workers tend to give clear instructions to foreigners with broad arms, accompanied by the pervasive inclination to show respect. One of the main distinguishing factors between non-verbal communication in cultures is high and less contextual. The context refers to certain events and the importance that ultimately ens come about.  “High-context” cultures are most often based on non-verbal indications and gestures, using elements such as proximity to the type of relationships they have with others, rigorous hierarchies and social classes, a deep cultural tradition, and well-known beliefs and rules. On the other hand, “low context” cultures largely depend on words and oral communication, with direct communication and social hierarchies being much less tense and loose. Kinesics is the field of nonverbal communication related to body movements, including gestures, posture, and facial expressions, and the study of this area.