Nearly a century later, the writings of Cardinal Richelieu set the standard for continued engagement and dialogue. Callières (1994) asserted that true diplomacy is based on building trust and that trust can only be inspired by good faith. Dialogue leads to an understanding of mutual positions and helps to overcome lack of trust. Richelieu believed that the negotiations should never be interrupted and proposed to implement an orderly programme of action in an intelligent and ingenious manner. The approach, which claims that “today`s enemy could become tomorrow`s ally,” suggests that only a permanent diplomatic mission can ensure that sufficient time is devoted to negotiations to gain knowledge and influence (Berridge et al. 2001, 23). Im 11. During the Song Dynasty (960-1279), there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song, who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the often hostile neighbor Khitan to the north. The two diplomats secured the legitimate borders of the Song Dynasty through cartographic knowledge and dredging of ancient court archives. There was also a triad of war and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut dynasty of western Xia in northwest Song China (centered on present-day Shaanxi). After Song and Lý came into conflict with the Lý dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, they concluded a peace treaty in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had conquered during the war. Although it is not always possible to standardize formulas in a diplomatic agreement, some independent variables have a decisive impact on success: dialogue, real negotiations, clear results and compromise.
All of these elements form a solid framework within which negotiators can work cooperatively to end a conflict and reach a viable agreement. The existence of natural panaceas or miracle cures in diplomatic agreements is currently under investigation. Diplomacy has evolved from classical theories of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which emphasized the importance of objective factors, to modern ideas that also emphasize the human element. This explains why, in the old forms of diplomacy, it was easier to find generalized patterns in diplomatic agreements than in their more modern counterparts. Diplomatic agreements have become increasingly complex, covering many areas that go beyond conflicts in the traditional sense. The Dayton Accords and the Minsk Agreements are good examples of this. This complexity hinders our ability to find a universal formula that can work for all diplomatic situations and agreements. For some researchers, an agreement must produce a series of agreements that have been around for generations and demonstrate robustness and consistency, while for others, the measure of success is based on the agreement`s ability to meet initial expectations.
International agreements on diplomatic immunity are found in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. For example, the host State is not allowed to prosecute diplomats and must protect them, their families and property. The main objective of the Convention is to enable diplomats to carry out their work freely in the host State. They can only do so if they are not threatened with reprisals by the government of the latter state. After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 established an international system of diplomatic rank. Disputes over primacy between nations (and thus the corresponding diplomatic ranks) were first raised at the Aachen Congress in 1818, but lasted more than a century until after World War II, when the rank of ambassador became the norm. Meanwhile, figures like German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck were known for their international diplomacy. In 1994, Arthur M. Schlesinger said that “diplomacy is useful if the rules of the game are generally the same. . . .