Until 2008, foreigners employed in India were not covered by the provisions of the Provident Fund (PF), as pf contributions were not mandatory when workers` wages exceeded the salary cap. On the contrary, Indian nationals working abroad were required to contribute to each country`s social security system. However, these contributions have generally been lost due to limited seniority abroad or non-compliance with the minimum waiting period for the contribution or residence. The agreements also have a positive effect on the profitability and competitive position of companies operating abroad by reducing their business costs abroad. Companies with staff stationed abroad are encouraged to use these agreements to reduce their tax burden. While cross-border issues have arisen in the areas of taxation, immigration and social security in recent times, social security issues are also becoming more important, as they concern the pension benefits of individuals who, across borders, venture for employment. As part of the secondment or abolition of the dual contribution, workers who have moved to a SSA country are exempt from social security in the host country for a certain period of time (specific to each SSA), provided that they continue to pay social security contributions in their home country. This benefit can be used by obtaining a “guarantee certificate” (CoC) from the national authorities responsible for social security and presented to the social security authorities of the host country. Unfortunately, the main beneficiary countries in the region, which are also the richest in the region – Cameroon, Gabon, Senegal – have not ratified the CIPRES convention on social security.
Therefore, the CIPRES agreement can only have a marginal impact. The Uniform Law contains provisions for long-term benefits for old age and retirement, disability, illness and death of a family member under the social security schemes of GCC member states. Those who are entitled to this insurance coverage are nationals of one GCC member state, workers employed in another GCC Member State, persons subject to the social security legislation of their working country if they are nationals of that country and persons subject to their country`s social security legislation when employment was exercised in that country. The International Association for Social Security (ISSA) is creating a database on international social security agreements. A first step includes information on existing social security agreements, including contracting states, the effective date, the duration of the reference period for seconded workers, the duration of insurance for the self-employed, the types of social security branches covered, as well as other references and links. In a second phase, the database will contain information about the operation. The goal of all U.S. totalization agreements is to eliminate dual social security and taxation, while maintaining coverage for as many workers as possible under the country where they are likely to have the most ties, both at work and after retirement.
Any agreement aims to achieve this objective through a series of objective rules. Self-employed workers in a foreign country are also subject to totalisation agreements. These workers are generally subject to the social security coverage of their place of residence. For example, an independent U.S. citizen living in Sweden is covered by the Swedish social security system. However, there are exceptions to this part of the system.  U.S. totalization agreements with other countries generally have some key elements.
Overall, totalization agreements eliminate the dual social security of workers in the United States and the other country where they are from or in which they work. In doing so, one worker is excluded either from the other country`s taxation and social benefits program.