The Second Robinson Treaty for the Lake Huron area, commonly referred to as the Vacuum cleaner or suction surrenders Peninsula, was concluded on October 13, 1854 in Saugeen between ojibwa Chiefs, who inhabited the Vacuum Cleaner Peninsula (Bruce), under the direction of Chief Waabadik, and the Crown, represented by a delegation led by Laurence Oliphant. It is registered under Number 72 of the Crown Treaty. Although not negotiated by William Benjamin Robinson, so no “Robinson contract”, it is usually included with them. “We have never given up jurisdiction over our lands and waters,” said Chief Dean Sayers of Batchewana First Nation. “The treaty sets out a framework for peaceful coexistence that respects our intrinsic rights as an Anishinabe people. We have respected the contractual relations; Now Canada must stand by the agreement. In September 1850, the Anishinaabeg (Ojibwe) of the Upper Great Lakes signed two separate but interconnected contracts: the Robinson Superior Treaty (RST) and the Robinson Huron Treaty (RHT). These agreements allowed the Province of Canada (Canada East and Canada West, future Quebec and Ontario) to access the northern shores of Lake Huronse and Lake Superior for settlement and mining. In return, the indigenous peoples of the region received recognition of hunting and fishing rights, a pension (annual payment) and a reserve for the surrender of certain lands for each signatory community. The interpretation of the Robinson Treaties had legal and socio-economic implications for Indigenous and Settler communities and set precedents for subsequent numbered contracts. The Robinson Contract for the Lake Superior area, commonly referred to as the Robinson Superior Treaty, was signed in Sault Ste.
On September 7, 1850. Marie, Ontario, between Ojibwa Chiefs, who lived on the north shore of Lake Superior from the Pigeon River to Batchawana Bay, and The Crown, represented by a delegation led by William Benjamin Robinson. It is registered under Number 60 of the Crown Treaty. Dr. Elizabeth Carlson, a professor of social work at Laurentian University, is among those calling on the Crown to respect the contracts. The loss of land continued during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The Anishinaabeg signatories did not recognize the potential economic benefits of resource extraction. The implementation of the Indian Act of 1876 and the Indian Lands Act of 1924 reduced the effectiveness of contracts, which had a negative impact on Anishinaabeg`s livelihoods. Phase 3 of the retreat is expected to begin next September. Two Laurentian students have launched a petition calling on Ontario to maintain the Robinson-Huron contract and drop its appeals against Justice Hennessey`s decisions in Phases 1 and 2 of the retirement case.
The Huronsee chiefs, led by Shingwaukonse, knew the terms of contracts in Upper Canada and America and demanded a pension of $10 per capita and large reserves. Mr. Robinson objected to these “extravagant terms” and decided that two contracts were needed. He believed that the four chiefs and five captains of Lake Superior, less affected by colonial invaders, were more inclined to sign. Robinson drafted a contract on September 6, which was signed the next day. Robinson then told Shingwaukonse that he would prepare a contract for the Huron Chiefs of Lake Huron. He also threatened that those who did not sign would not receive any protection or compensation. The chiefs had two days to consider their options. Shingwaukonse reiterated his demands and asked for significant focal grants for the Métis, but Robinson refused to budge. The Lake Huron contract was then signed.
Mike Wabe Ontario has striven to deny justice. . . .